The 78th Regiment O. V. V. I., From Its "Muster-In" To Its
"Muster-Out;" Comprising Its Organization, Marches, Campaigns,
Battles And Skirmishes
Rev. Thomas M. Stevenson, Chaplain
Zanesville, Ohio, 1865
transcribed by Thomas
J. Joyce, Long Beach, CA, Sep. 2000
used with permission
here for full text
TRIP DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI.
CAMP AT LAKE PROVIDENCE - VISTA
PLANTATION - YOUNG'S POINT - CANAL - GRAND GULF - PORT GIBSON - RAYMOND
- JACKSON - CHAMPION HILLS - BLACK RIVER - VICKSBURG.
left camp at Memphis the evening of February 20, and embarked on the
Edward Walsh in company with the Thirtieth Illinois. The Paymaster was
engaged in paying the regiment when the order came to march to the boat.
He accompanied the regiment to the boat and finished his work on board.
The troops remained aboard until the morning of
the 22d, before the boat left the landing. All the Division was loaded
by Sabbath morning, and left about 8 o'clock, the steamer Continental
making the start, then followed the John Dickey, Platte Valley,
Louisiana, Edward Walsh, David Tatum, Mary Forsythe and others, in all
eleven boats, the flag-boat Superior bringing up the rear. The trip was
unpleasant on account of the cold, rainy weather. While lying at the
wharf many of the boys in some way eluded the vigilance of the guards,
and went off up town, determined to have a farewell spree before going
down the Mississippi. Although spirits were freely imbibed, yet very few
cases of drunkenness occurred on board.
After a ride of twenty-six hours we landed at
Providence, a distance of three hundred and twenty-five miles from
Memphis. We encamped in a cotton field, on the south bank of Lake
Providence, about one and a-half miles from the Mississippi river, which
is plainly in view, being much higher than the lake and surrounding
country. Although it is February, the peach trees are in bloom, and but
little fire is needed. The contrast between the climate here and at
Memphis is great.
Lake Providence, about which there is so much
talk, is about one quarter of a mile from the town, and is said to be
seven miles in length. There are about five hundred negroes digging a
canal from the lake to the river; the object being to turn the waters of
the Mississippi into the lake, so that our boats can cross the Red
river, cut off the rebel supplies from Texas, and flank the batteries of
Vicksburg. The course is from the lake into Bayou Tensas, thence to
Bayou Mason, thence into Black and Red rivers, and then down into the
Mississippi again. The work is progressing rapidly, and is now nearly
half done. Negroes are also at work clearing the timber from the Bayous.
The lake is about twelve feet lower than the river. Vicksburg is seventy
miles down the river, and forty by land.
Up to March 9th, nothing of interest had
transpired; everything has been quiet except the occasional appearance
of a few guerrillas in our front. Since our arrival here, the regiment
has had much heavy duty. The work on the canal has been going on
undisturbed until the 8th, when operations had to be suspended, in
consequence of the water in the bayou rising and flowing towards the
river. It is supposed to be the work of rebels who have constructed a
dam some twelve miles below. Sixteen regiments and a section of
artillery were sent down to look after them. Guerrillas are said to be
swarming the country in great numbers, but as yet have done little
damage. It is reported they have routed Quimby's Division which was
encamped about twenty miles from this place; the rebels cut the levee
above them and let the water so spread as to prevent their finding
suitable camping grounds.
Lake Providence was, for the first time,
honored last week by the launching of a steam craft into its waters. She
is intended to ply up and down the lake, and assist in the work of the
canal. Flatboats are also being built for the same purpose. It is hoped
that before long we may be permitted to take passage on the boats when
going to work on the canal and bayou, instead of having to foot it eight
or ten miles per day. I believe the work upon the canal will result in a
We have been visited while here by some very
severe storms, hail coming down as large as marbles, and the rain in
torrents. Sprinkling is unknown in this country; when it comes, it falls
in sheets of water. Since our arrival here the Government has been
extensively engaged in the cotton business. Every day teams are engaged
in bringing in confiscated cotton, and new discoveries are being made of
cotton hid in swamps. In a canebrake near where our men are at work two
hundred and fifty bales were found. The negroes are also at work picking
the cotton. On the plantation where our troops are encamped, one field
of cotton is fifteen hundred acres in extent. The men amuse themselves
by playing ball and sailing on the lake.
The following letters written by Captain A. A.
Adair give a full history of the regiment at this place:
CAMP ON THE MISSISSIPPI
NEAR PROVIDENCE, LA., March 19, 1863. }
are still in the land of the living with heat and gallinippers plenty.
On Saturday last orders were received to have
three days' rations in haversacks, and be ready to go aboard the
transports, (which were lying in wait for us,) the next morning.
Accordingly, rations were drawn, cooked and put in our haversacks;
details were made to load the boats and everything was taken down and
packed up; fully expecting to be on our way for the Yazoo Pass, (which
was currently reported to be our destination,) by daylight next morning.
As is generally the case whenever we go to move, it commenced raining,
and continued until we got on the boat, which was about 3 o'clock, P. M.
when it commenced clearing up. Being so regular I suppose it must be
Everything had been loaded and we were all on our respective boats,
which had been assigned us, before dark, and were waiting for the time
to roll around when we would put out. Most of the boats were occupied by
two regiments; but one boat, (the Gladiator,) only had the "Brigade
headquarters," and the Seventy-Eighth on board, making it much more
comfortable for us than when coming down from Memphis. One regiment of
our Brigade, the Thirtieth Illinois, was compelled to remain behind,
there being no transportation for it at that time; but it was to follow
as soon as possible. On our going to the boat the Thirtieth was in line,
and gave us parting salutes and cheers as we passed by, thus showing the
good feeling that existed between them and the Seventy-Eighth.
While thus situated a boat arrived from the
fleet below, countermanding the movements we had in prospect, and
compelling us to remain where we were, and await further orders. Of
course every one was wondering what was up, and it was soon reported the
rebels were evacuating Vicksburg and going to reinforce Johnston to
operate against Rosecrans, which appeared to gain considerable credence;
but whether it is so or not, I cannot say.
Next morning, however, the boat returned to the fleet to see what was to
be done, and in the meantime we were making ourselves as comfortable as
we could. Whenever we are put on boats a guard is always placed so as to
keep the men on, but as the boat was lying close to the shore the boys
would jump off despite all the guards could do. In cases of that kind
guards are not overly attentive, and do not care whether the boys get
off or not.
On the evening of the 16th, and while we were
lying at the landing awaiting orders, the levee was cut and the water of
the raging Mississippi was turned into Lake Providence. When it was
known it was the intention to do so, a lot of the boys volunteered, and
it was but a short time before the water made its appearance on the
other side, all being anxious to see it done before we left. Two
trenches were dug about thirty feet apart, leaving the water to wash out
the space between. And against morning all was clear, and the water
gushing through at a furious rate, putting one in mind of the dams in
the Muskingum in time of high water. By this time, I expect some of the
old secesh back in the country are wondering what's up, and are
beginning to skedaddle.
We had remained on the boat all that day, and
until about ten o'clock the next, when orders came for us to go into
camp above Providence, keeping all the Division together. The Gladiator
having the least on, and being already fired up, General Logan went
aboard and had her cruise along up the shore until a suitable camping
ground could be found, the other boats following shortly after. All was
unloaded, our new camp cleaned off, and the tents up before dark. We are
now about five miles above Providence, in a corn field, and but a short
distance from the river, affording us a good view of all the boats
passing up and down.
Rumors are prevalent that our Division will go
to reinforce Rosecrans, should it prove true that the rebels are
reinforcing Johnston from Vicksburg. And we are all anxious that it may
be so, for we are getting tired of this country; it is a little too hot
for comfort, and then the gallinippers! Oh! dear, they are enough to
torment any one to death. They are beginning to let us know they are
about, by buzzing around and occasionally taking a fellow a dip along
side the lug, and of course always leaving their mark. They are a
different and much larger species than you have in the North.
The Yazoo Pass was undoubtedly the place we were destined for, and there
has certainly something of importance turned up which prevented our
going, but I do not believe we will remain here long. I think we will
either go back to Tennessee, or go down in front of Vicksburg. I hope it
will be the former, for then we will stand a chance of coming in contact
with Ohio regiments in which there are companies from old Morgan.
In this camp we are not at a loss for water, as
we can dig down only three feet and get a supply of good, clear water,
right at home. Rails are also plenty, making first rate fire wood.
CAMP ON VISTA
PLANTATION, March 29, 1863.
EDITOR: - On the 22d inst. our Brigade (which is called the "Flying
Brigade" by General Logan) received marching orders to go aboard
the boats immediately, having three days' rations in our haversacks. All
were conjecturing as to our destination, some saying we were going up
the river and others down.
But it soon became known which route we were to
take. As is usual, it commenced to rain before we got on the boats,
making it very unpleasant as well as disagreeable for us, for the
hurricane deck is always the most desirable place on the boat in good
weather. The Seventy-Eighth (of course) was the last regiment on board;
seven companies going on the Gladiator, with the Brigade headquarters,
while the other three, with the artillery, went on the Iatan, the
Twentieth and Sixty-Eighth on the Louisiana, and the Thirtieth Illinois
on the Fanny Ogden.
Darkness was upon us before we got started, and
most of us were wrapped in nature's sleep, not knowing which way we were
going until a little after daylight, when it was found we were making a
landing at Eagle Bend, twenty miles above Vicksburg, on the Mississippi
side. It was soon ascertained that the object of our mission was to
reinforce General Sherman, who had started from that point a few days
before to make his way across to the Yazoo river to operate in the rear
of Vicksburg. Should he need reinforcements we were to be there in
readiness for him.
We remained on the boats until the morning of the 25th, when we went
into camp about a mile back of the river, sending the sick and
everything pertaining to our camp equipage back to our old camp, taking
nothing with us but our knapsacks, dog-tents, camp kettles, and a few
mess pans. The roads were utterly impassable for teams, not even a horse
being able to get along, and consequently the artillery was sent back
also. Should we be needed it was said we would have hard times getting
along, and it was best not to take anything but what would be really
No troops were at this point except a few "pioneers," who were
building up the road. A stream of water came in here from the river,
forming a bayou, upon which were steam tugs plying to and fro, assisting
General Sherman in his undertaking. We expected to remain there two or
three days, and commenced building houses out of a sort of willow; but
orders came that night for us to return to our Division again. The
Thirtieth Illinois started back about midnight, there being no
transportation for the other regiments at that time, we having to wait
until the boats could come down after us.
Before leaving we heard that Sherman's forces were coming back again,
being unable to accomplish their purpose. It was reported that the
rebels were felling timber into the bayou faster than he could take it
out; and while doing so he took five hundred prisoners, coming upon them
unawares, capturing arms and equipments. Whether these reports are true,
I am unable to say.
The next morning everything was packed up
early, expecting to get orders to go at any time, but we had to remain
until 3 o'clock before our boats arrived, when we skedaddled to the
river and were off in a little while, the Seventy-Eighth being aboard
the Fanny Ogden, and the Twentieth and Sixty-Eighth on the Gladiator,
getting back to our old camp on "Vista Plantation," near
Perry's Landing, and about five miles above Lake Providence, about dark.
Our things, when they were sent back, were piled up and no care taken of
them at all, and when we came into camp all were anxious to get their
things and put up the tents; but in hunting around they accidentally
fell upon a lot of sanitary stores that were unguarded, and thinking
they were sutler goods waded in and demolished the contents, which
consisted of spirits, drawers, potatoes, fish, liquors, etc.
Consequently, the next morning a search was made, and those found having
any of the articles were taken up to headquarters and put under arrest.
It seems hard that the boys have got to suffer for the negligence of the
officers; but they might as well eat up such things as to leave them for
the officers, for there is generally where such things go.
While we were gone, all our bedding was carried
off by other regiments, and a cotton gin and some other buildings being
handy, the next morning the boys determined to have some boards to sleep
on, and commenced to break for the scene of operations, delegations
being on hand from the three Ohio regiments (the Thirtieth Illinois
being supplied before we came,) and it was not long before the boards
and shingles began to fly thick and fast, and persons were coming back
with arm loads. While this was going on some person slipped into the gin
and set it on fire, which soon reduced it to ashes. This brought out
General Logan, who commenced pouring out his wrath on the "Flying
Brigade," and it was not long before orders were issued compelling
all who had got shingles and boards at these buildings to take them up
to our regimental headquarters. Company E was well represented, myself
being one of the number, for we are never slow in such undertakings.
That being done, each had to give in his name, when we were all sent up
to Logan's headquarters, taking our boards and shingles with us,
whooping and yelling like mad. But we had hardly got up there when we
were ordered to pile them up separately, and go to our quarters; but
shortly after we were told to go up and get our lumber, when lo! it was
found that the boards were measured, the shingles counted, and each
man's pile taken account of. There was a good deal of sport made of it,
and every company had to share it.
Since then General Logan ordered General
Leggett to assess the amount of property destroyed, and tax the officers
and men of his Brigade with it, and have it put upon the next muster
rolls, so it can be deducted from their pay, but to exempt all regiments
whom he knew not to be guilty. Accordingly the assessment was made,
which was put at $2,000, and is to come off the three Ohio regiments,
the Suckers all being exempt.
It is now the principal gossip of the
regiments, and if they are to pay for the destruction of property done
by some unknown person, it will be apt to raise a "muss," and
cause them to destroy much more than they otherwise would have done; and
it is believed by most of those who were there at the time, that it was
burned by the old secesh himself, for he was there and was heard to say,
when they commenced tearing down the old gin, "that the boards on
that building wouldn't do them much good," and immediately started
towards it; and in fifteen minutes time it was in flames. I mention this
just for the purpose of showing what injustice is practised upon the
soldiers in the army. The leaders can order the levee to be cut and
millions of property may be destroyed by it, but if any property is
burned, and it can be traced to the soldiers, they have got to pay for
it, and the proceeds pocketed by some one just honest enough to keep it.
Such doings as that won't win, and it is time it was stopped. If all
rebel property was destroyed as soon as we came to it, this war would be
ended much sooner than it will be the way things are carried on now.
The Ohio boys of the Second Brigade are always able to "hold their
own," and the title of "jayhawkers" has been given them
by General Logan, who says he believes if they were put in front of
Vicksburg they would have it torn down and be sleeping over it in less
than three days.
Since I last wrote you the weather has
undergone quite a change. Last night a regular old "nor'-wester"
came upon us, preceded by rain, which knocked the tents in every
direction, and had the boys up at work with hatchets and axes, staking
down their houses for fear of having them carried away. The officers'
quarters of Company E were among the unfortunate.
Boats continue to pass here daily loaded with
soldiers, going both up and down the river. We had reports yesterday
that a part of Logan's Division was to leave to-day for some point up
the river; if it is so it will not likely be the "Flying
Brigade" this time. We are in perfect ignorance as to what is going
on, for we are unable to get any news at all, and our letters are
generally about two weeks old before we get them. Yours truly,
Lake Providence expedition being abandoned, an effort was made to gain the
rear of Vicksburg by the Yazoo Pass, which also failed, after almost
incredible labor and hardships. Many boats in attempting this were
seriously damaged, and were compelled to go North for repairs. The rebels
defeated the success of the expedition by felling timber in the main
channel; which obstructions our forces removed in part, but finding it
impracticable abandoned the effort and all the troops returned to
Sherman's Landing, but nothing disheartened.
Sherman's great canal, intending to change the
channel of the Mississippi river, also proved a failure. The only way left
to gain the rear of Vicksburg was to run the blockade with a sufficient
number of boats to supply and transport the army across the river below
Grand Gulf. General Logan's Division was called upon to furnish volunteers
to attempt the hazardous undertaking. The following men volunteered from
the Seventy-Eighth Ohio: Captain Hugh Dunne, second in command of steamer
J. W. Cheeseman; Sergeant James McLaughlin, Company D, engineer on Empire
City; Corporal Henry Baugus, Company B; Henry H. Smith, Company F;
Alexander White, Company F; Burke Clark, Company D; Abel Arter, Company D;
Daniel Christman, Company E.
Six boats were put in readiness, and about
midnight, started. The first passed part of the batteries before the
rebels got aroused; soon the batteries opened, and one hundred and eighty
pieces of heavy artillery, which lined the shore for about seven miles in
extent, broke forth in the most awful grandeur, which lit up the heavens
and seemed to shake the very pillars of the universe. Nothing but the
interposition of a prospering Providence saved the boats, which were all
more or less injured, in successfully passing the batteries.
The whole army, then fifty-five thousand strong, set out upon its march to
Bruinburg, below Grand Gulf, where it crossed the river, fought five
successive battles, and drove an enemy outnumbering the Union army, into
the walls of Vicksburg.
The following letters were written by Surgeon
Reeves and the author, which give a correct history of the regiment and
gallant army under General Grant has just obtained a glorious victory -
a victory which fully justifies the confidence their commander seems to
have felt when he entered upon the daring campaign to Vicksburg by the
way of Grand Gulf and Jackson.
Yesterday morning the position of our army was
briefly this: Part of Sherman's Corps occupied Jackson - the particulars
of the capture of that town you have already learned. The larger part of
McPherson's Corps lay at the same place. McClernand's was two miles
south of Bolton, and sixteen miles west of Jackson, while Ransom's
Brigade of McArthur's Division, (McPherson's Corps) and Blair's Division
of Sherman's Corps were approaching Raymond on their march from Grand
Gulf. The little town of Raymond lies eight miles south of Bolton, and
about twenty south-west from Jackson.
The enemy had massed his forces at Edward's
Station, nineteen miles east of Vicksburg on the railroad, with the
intent to cut our long lines somewhere between Raymond and Bolton, and
thus at once deprive us of supplies and beat us in detail. But his
designs were discovered and splendidly defeated.
Yesterday morning news came to General
McClernand that the enemy were advancing on him from the north-west in
the manner just indicated, and he immediately ordered General A. L. Lee,
who had that moment arrived and reported for duty in the Thirteenth Army
Corps, to reconnoiter the approach. With a squad of cavalry General Lee
galloped off five or six miles toward Edward's Station, scoured the
country to and fro, discovered the enemy's pickets in that direction,
and returned with a map of the ground over which the battle was next day
to be fought.
In the meantime General McPherson's command
moved rapidly down from Jackson and arrived toward nightfall near
Bolton, while Ransom's Brigade and Blair's Division reached Raymond.
Thus our widely extended front was suddenly closed on the center, in
such a way as to be ready for either attack or defense. At the same time
General Sherman moved from Jackson north of the railroad toward Edward's
Station, in such course as to keep within supporting distance, and to
prevent the rebel force under Joe Johnston (driven northward out of
Jackson) from making a junction with their friends at Edward's Station.
At daylight this morning our movement toward
Edward's Station began. Hovey's Division of McClernand's Corps, followed
by McPherson on the right, and advancing on the road from Bolton;
Osterhaus' Division, followed by General Carr's, on the center; and
Smith's Division, with General Blair's as a reserve, on the left, by the
first road from Raymond to Edward's Station.
The battle opened on the left about 8 o'clock,
with artillery directed on Smith's advance. It seemed that the rebels
were attempting to turn our left, and get in our rear in the direction
of Raymond. But Smith held his road firmly, and the enemy slowly
retired, while we slowly advanced.
The enemy next massed his forces on our right
center, where Hovey's Division was coming up, and here the battle began
to rage in deadly earnest. For a time the result seemed doubtful; the
rebels pressed on in the most determined manner, while Hovey's brave
boys returned their attacks with the most persistent valor. For a moment
we gave back at that point, but Hovey, being reinforced by two Brigades
of Crocker's Division, the enemy were driven, and the day went in our
favor. A portion of the rebel force began their retreat by the Vicksburg
road. McPherson swung around his right, and cut off and captured about
fifteen hundred prisoners, and a battery of ten guns. Our left,
McClernand's Corps and Blair's Division, and Ransom's Brigade now
pressed forward, and the complete defeat and demoralization of the enemy
was assured. Our artillery was hastened forward from point to point,
over the numberless hills of this most rugged country, and poured its
deadly fire into the flying columns of the rebels. At sunset, as we
entered Edward's Station, we found there a great debris of stores
abandoned by the enemy in his flight - among them a train of cars loaded
with ammunition and set on fire, and a depot of provisions also partly
consumed. We managed to save from these ninety thousand rounds of musket
ammunition, a large quantity of fixed ammunition for field pieces, and a
good supply of sugar.
Our captures in this splendid fight foot up to
about two thousand eight hundred prisoners, nineteen guns, and about ten
thousand serviceable Enfield rifles, together with all the stores I have
THE BATTLE OF THE BIG BLACK.
THE BRIDGE, May 17. - At daylight this morning our victorious army moved
on from Edward's Station, by the main road to the Big Black,
McClernand's Corps in the advance, led by Carr's Division. It was known
that the rebels had constructed earthworks to defend the bridge, and
that these works must be taken. The distance was but three miles, and we
had hardly advanced one before the skirmishing in front commenced. The
enemy slowly retired, and we pressed on until we reached a point about
one mile from the river, when the rebel batteries, some eighteen guns,
opened on us. They had a good range of the road, and the shells flew and
burst about us in lively style.
Carr immediately formed in line of battle and
advanced on the center and right, with half of Osterhaus' Division on
the extreme right and half on the left. Smith's Division came rapidly up
and formed on the extreme left.
The action had hardly began when the gallant
Osterhaus was slightly wounded, while busy in getting the First
Wisconsin Battery in position on the left center. Captain Foster,
commanding the battery, was at the same time hurt - a case shot bursting
among the party, and both were obliged to leave the field. General
McClernand immediately ordered General A. L. Lee to take command of the
Ninth Division, and the battle began. It was soon terminated. After an
artillery duel of an hour or so, varied with some sharp skirmishing,
General Carr's Division, with the portion of Lee's which was on the
right, made a gallant charge upon a weak spot on the enemy's left, and
took the works. So suddenly and effectively was this done that the whole
of Bowen's Brigade was cut off and captured, while our left, advancing
at the same time, took two regiments of rebels who were trying to escape
down the swamp and across the river in that direction. Every gun in the
works was taken - in all eighteen - and the number of prisoners amounted
to about three thousand. The haste with which the surrender was made was
something ludicrous. The moment our charge began on the right fifty
white flags appeared behind the works, extemporised by hoisting bunches
of cotton on the end of bayonets. Alas! that the regal fiber should
fulfill so meek a mission! We immediately advanced up to the captured
works, and, planting a section of heavy guns near the river, began to
shell the rebels who had got across it, and had burned the bridge which
took them over, as well as set fire to the immense railroad bridge and
The enemy left a regiment of sharpshooters on
the west bank of the river to annoy us and delay our crossing, but
General Lee, with a pioneer corps and a company of skirmishers,
protected by the fire of Lamphear's Seventh Michigan Battery,
reconnoitered the bank, and commenced the construction of a floating
bridge. At 9 o'clock to-morrow it will be completed, and we shall move
Meantime Sherman's Corps is crossing on pontoons above, and will go to
Vicksburg by the upper road toward Haines' Bluff, while McClernand and
McPherson will move on the Jackson road.
Our losses in the battle of yesterday were heavy - probably three
hundred killed, and the usual sad proportion of wounded. Pemberton was
in command of the rebel force. Major General Tilghman was killed. In the
battle to-day our losses were but slight - our captures immoderately
THREE MILES IN REAR OF
May 20, 1863. }
the 18th our army crossed the Big Black and marched on Vicksburg,
Sherman coming in and taking possession of Haines' Bluff, McPherson
arriving on the Jackson road, and McClernand advancing toward the close
of his march on the road to Baldwin's Ferry.
Yesterday morning General Grant began to
"move upon the enemy's works," - a line of redoubts extending
from the rear of Haines Bluff to the Warrenton road, a distance of eight
or ten miles.
The attack was made with Sherman on the right, McPherson extended from
his left to the railroad, and McClernand from his left on the railroad
to the extreme left. At daylight our troops moved up, but the action did
not begin until about noon, save an occasional shot from our artillery
as it came within range.
After a slow fire from our artillery had failed
to elicit any reply from the rebel works, our lines slowly advanced
until at every point they were in front hardly one thousand yards from
the redoubts. The ground over which we crossed in this movement was
singularly rough, a series of hills and hollows, not high but steep. As
we neared the hostile redoubts we found that they commanded every crest
and swept every ravine. Yet at 2 o'clock a general charge was ordered.
About the same success - or want of success - attended the charge along
the whole line. We have up to this time advanced so close to the enemy's
works that he cannot safely use his guns, and our heavier artillery is
being pushed up and planted in such a way that I trust to-morrow will
see some good results. Communication is open to the Yazoo by way of
Haines' Bluff, and supplies now come to us from the upper river.
As I write, the slow and sullen booming of the gunboats both above and
below, show that they too are joining in the great fight. The situation
grows dramatic and solemn, and the end is near at hand.
IN REAR OF VICKSBURG,May
stronghold of the rebel power on the Mississippi is now completely
invested by the army of General Grant. The fragments of the insurgent
forces which escaped from the victories of Port Hudson, of Jackson, of
Champion or Midway Hills, and of Big Black, have retired within the
strong but small circle of defenses which surround the city, at a
distance of about two miles from the heart. There a stubborn resistance
is now being made, the redoubts and rifle-pits giving the rebels an
advantage in the way of safety, but none, I think, in the way of moral
strength. Presumptively the advantage is with the attacking party, and
especially in this case, where our army, since its bold move from
Young's Point, by the way of Grand Gulf, has been uniformly and
To-day our forces are busy from right to left,
over the entire line, in creeping more closely to the formidable works
of the enemy. At several points our sharpshooters are so near the
redoubts, and so well sheltered by the remarkably rough ground, that
they totally prevent the enemy from using his guns. They are near enough
too, to indulge in jocose conversation with the rebels in their
At the same time our heavier artillery is being
pushed up slowly in such a way as to bear effectually on the enemy's
works. The ground is such that the hills occupied by us are just about
as convenient and commanding as those occupied by them. What works they
have within the line we are now attacking, is not certainly known but
they cannot be extensive, for their present line is quite near the city.
If the rebels retire from their present position, they subject the city
Below and above Vicksburg our mortar fleet is grumbling and thundering,
very slowly but steadily, and we can see the huge shells bursting over
the town. A warm place to live in now.
IN REAR OF VICKSBURG,
To-day a general charge upon the enemy's works was ordered and made,
though I cannot yet learn that at any point the works were completely
carried. The singularly rough nature of the ground makes it almost
impossible to tell what we have to encounter, and rapidly fatigues the
men. But we advance in this way steadily, and at each charge our
sharpshooters obtain a better position for their operations. Our
artillery hastens to get better position, small intrenchments being
thrown up to protect it; and thus we have the curious spectacle of
hostile redoubts already frowning upon each other, at a distance of but
a few hundred yards.
The guns of the rebels reply to our shelling
but seldom. They are evidently husbanding their ammunition, for they can
now get no further supply. Their redoubts are constructed for field
guns, and within the last three weeks Grant has captured about seventy
In the meantime we have a new base of supplies
from the Yazoo, through which reinforcements, provisions, ammunition and
heavy guns can be sent as rapidly as we please.
The rebel force within Vicksburg cannot now be
more than twenty thousand. Before the fight at Jackson, they may have
had forty-five thousand, but part of that number we forced up northward
toward Canton - say ten thousand. At the battle of Midway Hills, (or
Champion Hills,) on the 16th instant, their effective force was perhaps
thirty-five thousand men. Of these at least ten thousand were killed,
wounded or captured, or driven to escape northward or southward, in such
a way as to prevent them from returning to Vicksburg. At the fight on
Big Black, on the 17th, we captured nearly three thousand, and scattered
many more in such a way that they are more likely to have straggled home
through the woods than to have reported for duty.
have arrived at the Yazoo, near Chickasaw Bayou, after riding from the
extreme left of our army. Of course rumors are plenty of the operations
of to-day. One is that our mortars and gunboats have silenced two of the
upper water batteries, and that vessels now pass Vicksburg without being
fired on. Another is that in the attempted charge of to-day the
Thirty-First Illinois got up to the enemy's works, and there found a
stockade so high that they could not scale it, and so they stopped and
lay down under it, unable to go further, yet protected from the enemy's
fire. At this moment a rebel redoubt on the left tried to get a raking
fire on them, when our artillery, concentrating its shots upon the
redoubt, suddenly battered it to silence, knocking one of its guns some
thirty feet into the air.
THE SIEGE OF VICKSBURG.
THE SEVENTY-EIGHTH OHIO ENGAGED -
CONDITION OF THE WOUNDED - INTERESTING SCENES AND INCIDENTS DURING THE
BATTLE-FIELD, IN REAR OF
June 1, 1863. }
regiment at present has gone with others on a scout after General Joe
Johnston, who is reported to be gathering a force in our rear, but up to
Saturday they had seen nothing of him. He was not at the point reported
to our men. Our forces, we understand, were pushing on toward Yazoo
City, to capture a small force of rebels reported there, and also to
take their fleet of transports and stores at that place. We look for the
return of the regiment in a day or two. They are very anxious to meet
None of those wounded of Company E have died,
but are getting along well, far beyond the Surgeon's expectations.
Beisaker, Weller, Rassell and Russell, are still back in the hospital at
Champion Hills; they will be brought to the hospital here in a few days.
Nearly all the wounded and sick at Raymond and Champion Hills have been
paroled by the rebel guerillas. They paroled some who died the same day.
They paroled our nurses waiting upon the secesh wounded, and took some
of them to Jackson as prisoners; and when our forces had left in pursuit
of the enemy, the guerrillas captured the few ambulances detailed to
carry the rebel wounded to the hospital, and drove them off, leaving
their own wounded lying upon the field of battle. I wonder if the
generous sympathizers in the North will approve this act of humane
I spent part of the day yesterday in our
Division hospital. About three hundred wounded are there, all doing well
under the skillful management of Surgeon Reeves, and others. Several of
the Seventy-Eighth Ohio boys are there. A visit to one of these
hospitals impresses us deeply with the sad effects of war, and the dread
results of an engagement in battle. Every description of wounds are
seen. The loss of limbs, to me, seems the greatest, and the most to be
regretted. It is surprising to see how cheerful the wounded are. How
patient, submissive and grateful. The scene impresses a bystander with
the deepest feelings of sadness.
The Adjutant of the Seventy-Eighth - H. Abbott,
of Zanesville - I presume is dead. The last word from him was, he would
not live many days. He was shot through the neck, also breaking his
Our men have had a hard campaign; for more than
two weeks they made every day a full day's march, and fought a
successful battle almost every day. They started with five days'
rations, and lived upon it seventeen; of course the country had to
suffer, especially the cellars, smoke-houses and poultry yards. They
also destroyed a sufficient quantity of provisions to supply our army
Matters about Vicksburg are in statu quo. The
rebel army is still in holes, and dare not come out. The two armies can
converse with each other. All our artillery is planted within two
hundred yards of their forts. It is reported by deserters that the
citizens of Vicksburg presented General Pemberton a petition to
surrender; but he replied that they (the citizens) had abused him by
circulating lies upon him, and now he intended to hold Vicksburg as long
as he had a live man. The city is nearly all torn to pieces by our
mortar fleet, and also our artillery in the rear. The women and children
are in caves under the ground; it is reported that many of them have
been killed. It cannot be otherwise.
All their mules and horses have been killed, and they are seen throwing
them into the river every night. They attempted to drive many of them
through our lines, but our artillery opened upon them and killed them
around the forts, and they dare not come out to bury them.
General Grant, last Sabbath week, ordered all
the women out of the city; they did not avail themselves of this
privilege; they would gladly do it now, but Grant says they must now
submit to their fate, and help eat up the stores in the city. This seems
hard but it is just. They are reaping the just retribution of their own
works. It would not do for me to be General, my feelings would lead me
to give them a place of safety.
One morning last week the rebels asked a
cessation of hostilities for two and a half hours. It was granted; our
men went up to the fortifications, and the rebels stood on top of the
forts, when mutual conversation took place. Some of the rebels came over
and drank coffee with our men. Some said they would surrender the fort
for a cup of coffee; one took the names of some of the Seventy-Eighth,
and said, "When you take us, which will be before long, I want to
find you." One private in the Thirtieth Illinois, of our Brigade,
met in the fort, his own father and brother. They had a pleasant
interview: the father and brother did not wish to return, but asked
permission to remain as prisoners. The officers of the Thirtieth sent
them back, refusing to take prisoners while a flag of truce was out.
They said they would desert the first opportunity.
Over six thousand prisoners have been sent
North; some go every day. A great many are deserting to our gunboats
upon the river. It is almost impossible to desert to our side on account
of the sharpshooters on both sides. These sharpshooters are picking off
a great number of men. We are losing some fine officers in this way.
Last week the Captains of both batteries of our Brigade fell before the
concealed sharpshooters. Captain Rodgers, of McCalister's Ohio Battery
was killed instantly on Friday morning. Captain DeGalyer, on Thursday
evening, was mortally wounded. These were the most efficient officers of
How long this siege may continue I presume will depend upon the
provision stores of Vicksburg. Some deserters report that the soldiers
say they will kill Pemberton if he does not surrender in a few days. It
is to be hoped they will yield in a few days. We could take the forts by
storm, but it would be too great a sacrifice. We have got the animal
caged, but dare not enter the cage.
The health of our army is good. Its energy and
life unsurpassed: its courage and determination desperate. The army with
its present spirit could successfully meet three times its number.
THE SEVENTY-EIGHTH OHIO AT VICKSBURG -
FULL LIST OF THE CASUALTIES
AS REPORTED BY SURGEON REEVES.
IN THE FIELD, VICKSBURG,
MISS., FIELD HOSPITAL,
THIRD DIVISION, SEVENTEENTH ARMY CORPS,
MAY 20, 1863. }
JAMES A. ADAIR:
Dear Sir - The stirring events of the past
month have so rapidly followed each other, and so slight have been the
opportunities for writing, that I have been unable to make a report to
you, such as I felt it my duty to make.
On the 25th of April we left Milliken's Bend, Louisiana, as a part of
the Seventeenth Army Corps, and marched over a military road which
General Grant had caused to be made, passed through Richmond and along
Roundaway Bayou to Lake St. Joseph, around which we passed, and reached
Perkin's Landing, on the Mississippi River, on the 28th. The next
morning we continued our march to Hard-times Landing, where transports
and gunboats awaited us, which took us down the river about ten miles,
and we debarked and stacked arms in Mississippi. From that point we took
up our line of march along the Port Gibson road. The Seventy-Eighth was
detailed to act as rear-guard to the column all that day, and was the
last to come up for the bivouac at night.
General Crocker's Division was in advance, and
when in the vicinity of Magnolia Church, met the rebels, under Generals
Bowen and Tracy, nearly five thousand strong, occupying a strong
position, and with whom they became engaged, at 2 o'clock A. M., on May
1st. The battle was fought with varying success by that Division, until
12 M., when General Logan's Division came up on the double-quick and
forced the rebels from their position, driving them back with great
loss. On the next day we occupied Port Gibson.
The country is broken, and presents a
succession of ridges running in parallel but very tortuous lines, with
deep ravines intervening, affording natural earthworks in great variety.
The rebels were routed, and retreated in the night toward Jackson,
burning the bridges over Bayou St. Pierre and several other streams.
We left Port Gibson on the 2d of May and
marched toward Vicksburg, and found the country to grow better as we
advanced. We came to Little Black river just after the enemy had
crossed, too late to capture them. At this point the Second Brigade had
the advance, and was shelled by a rebel battery, the shells bursting
over and around the Seventy-Eighth fiercely for a short time, but
fortunately without hurting any one.
We then moved toward Clinton, on the railroad
from Jackson to Vicksburg, when, within four miles of Raymond, we met
the enemy, eight thousand strong. General Logan was in the advance, and
a fierce battle ensued. They were again routed and fled toward Jackson.
In this battle the Seventy-Eighth acted a prominent part and suffered
loss. Private Oliver Story, of Company F, was mortally wounded and has
since died; Charles Mason, of Company D, shot through the shoulder
severely; Isaac Drum, Company E, wounded in the head slightly.
We moved to Clinton and occupied the town,
capturing a quantity of clothing and army stores, tearing up the
railroad, and crippling the rebels in various ways, and on the next day
went toward Jackson and again met the enemy, who had taken position upon
the grounds of a planter. The battle was short and decisive. The rebels
were routed, leaving their killed and wounded on the field. Two
batteries were captured. Our troops immediately occupied Jackson, and
stacked arms on the "sacred soil" of "King Jeff." So
rapid had been our march, and so sharp our fighting, that the people,
deluded by the misrepresentations of the lying press at Jackson, were
completely surprised, and they made a stampede that would put to blush a
score of Bull Runs. At daylight next morning General Logan's Division
was en route for Vicksburg.
On the morning of the 16th of May, the advance
of our column was checked by the enemy, who were drawn up in line of
battle at Champion Hills, four miles from Black River. Immediate
preparations were made to meet them. The engagement commenced on the
left, and it soon became a fierce conflict - Hovey and Carr's Divisions
being in the hottest of the fight. The roads at this point were
numerous, all converging toward Black River Bridge, thus bringing our
troops nearer to each other as we advanced. The battle soon involved the
troops on the right of the road, and Logan's Division became engaged. At
this time the Second Brigade, led on by General Leggett, participated in
the fight, and I say with pride, that the Seventy-Eighth Regiment went
into battle cool and determined, stood up under a heavy fire without
flinching, and acquitted themselves nobly. Far in advance of the line,
they stood out in bold relief, and forced the enemy to fall back.
For three hours the rebels maintained their
position, during which time there was one continuous roar of artillery
and musketry. A brilliant charge was then made upon a battery of nine
guns, and it was taken; then the rebel line began to waver, was broken
and soon commenced a hasty retreat. They fled toward the bridge about
which so much has been said and written, and were crossing pell-mell as
fast as possible, when night enshrouded the scene and quiet reigned. Ere
morning dawned upon the hills, Carr's Division fell upon the retreating
enemy and captured between two and three thousand of them, and seventeen
pieces of artillery.
During the engagement our hospital was located
temporarily in the woods at what was a suitable distance, but by a
series of maneuvers batteries were planted upon the ridge near us, and
as the wounded were not yet brought in, I had ample opportunity to
witness the fight. Our troops were in the open field, while the rebels
occupied the woods. A single gun from DeGalyer's Battery was stationed
on a projecting knob, and was raking the enemy terribly. A battery of
six guns was planted just under the edge of the ridge, out of sight of
the rebels, and which was intended to do special work. The Second
Brigade was at this time in a depression in the field. Presently the
rebels charged upon the solitary gun, swarming like bees about the edge
of the woods, and going rapidly toward the gun. At that moment the
battery opened and dropped its shells with great precision right among
the rebels, sending living and dead in every direction - particularly in
the direction of the woods. The field was cleared, and the gun kept
thundering away. When the rebels retreated our Brigade followed.
In riding over the ground next day, I came to
where the charge was made upon the rebel battery. The road was strewed
with dead horses and broken harness, and a few broken gun carriages.
Near by, six dead horses marked the spot where a single gun had been
planted to deal death among our men. The gun was gone, but deep marks in
the hard ground told of the fearful rebound it gave at each discharge.
Within ten feet of the spot on which the gun stood, nine graves ranged
side by side, disclosing the resting place of those who fell beside it.
The battle was over, the enemy routed, and
"On to Vicksburg!" was the word. On we went, and by midnight
were within four miles of the city. We now occupy the rear of the city,
our lines extending from Warrenton on the Mississippi to Haines' Bluff
on the Yazoo river.
On the morning of the 22d our guns were
thundering, and each day the cannonading had been going on. We have free
communication with Young's Point by way of Haines' Bluff, and with all
below by way of Warrenton, and are receiving provisions and ammunition,
in fact supplies of all kinds, by way of the Yazoo. Since coming to
Vicksburg, the Second Brigade has been constantly in the field, and the
Seventy-Eighth Regiment has been close upon the trenches, shielded by a
ridge, waiting for their time to come to "go in."
There is no time for writing; I am in the midst
of the wounded at the field hospital of the Third Division, and send
this more for the purpose of giving a list of the killed and wounded
than for anything else.
Our march from Milliken's Bend has been
triumphant and full of incidents, and I regret exceedingly that I have
not been permitted to pen a detailed account of it.
At Thompson's Hill, Jackson, Raymond, Champion
Hills, Black River Bridge, and in all the skirmishes, we have completely
whipped and discomfited the rebels, and drove them before us like scared
Herewith I send you a list of the killed and
wounded of the Seventy-Eighth Regiment, in the battles of Raymond and
the battle of Raymond, May 12, 1863, and left in the hospital at
Corporal Simeon H. Cockins, Company A, arm fractured; private Solomon J.
Donelson, A, fore-arm, buck shot; private Charles B. Mason, D, shoulder,
severely. (This was an accident, the wound being inflicted by his own
gun.) Private David Miller, D, head, severely; private Isaac Drum, B,
head, slight; private William C. Younger, B, thigh, slight; private
Thomas Hartsell, H, head, scalp wound; Corporal Oliver Story, F,
abdomen, since died; George W. Richardson, A, thigh, flesh wound.
The following are the casualties at the battle
of Champion Hills, May 16, 1863:
Lewis Voght, private, Company A; Sergeant Abner Roach, I; Sergeant -
Stitte, C; private Jno. F. McIntosh, I; private James Taylor, F; private
William McBurney, H; private Enoch Gray, K.
Private David Wilson, Company A, head, severely; private Philander S.
Castor, A, shoulder, severely; private Samuel Jackson, A, head, slight;
Lieutenant Jas. Caldwell, A, abdomen, severely, since died; Adjutant H.
Abbott, A, head, severely; private Randolph C. Austin, B, chest and left
shoulder; Sergeant Harrison C. Varner, B, shoulder; private Silas Eaton,
B, fore arm fractured, resection; private George W. Lay, B, chest and
back, severely; Sergeant Andrew McDaniels, thigh, flesh wound; private
-, C, fracture of both bones of the leg, amputated; private Jas. D.
Austin, D, neck, severely; private William Weller, E, conical ball
through the elbow joint, exsection of the joint; private J. C. Russell,
E, thigh, flesh wound; James Russell, E, abdomen, severely; Jacob
Beisaker, E, shot through the knee joint, amputation lower third of
thigh; Joseph Vankirk, F, fore arm, severely, exsection of elbow;
private Robert A. David, Company G, thigh, flesh wound; private Joseph
Rhinehart, hip, severely; private George Kimball, Company H, leg, flesh
wound; James Huelson, Company H, hip and abdomen, since died; private
Francis Scott, H, face, buck-shot; Sergeant Daniel Raney, H, leg, flesh
wound; private George W. Steele, I, arm, spent ball; private Aaron
Floyd, K, back, flesh wound; private Samuel Giesy, K, hand; private
George Luinbatus, K, hand fractured; private John Greenbank, K, hand,
slight; private Hiram Reed, K, thigh and arm; private John Weir, A,
face, (lower jaw); Corporal Andrew McPherson, E, neck; Lieutenant Israel
Robinson, D, hip, contusion; private Lewis Rowley, G.
We left Milliken's Bend without much
transportation, without a change of clothing, tents or cooking utensils,
save perhaps a coffee-pot and frying-pan, and have slept upon the ground
with the bright stars twinkling above us; and during the whole trip it
has rained but twice to cause any discomfort.
May 23. - Yesterday the First Brigade of our
Division charged the enemy's earthworks, but were obliged to fall back.
For some time they stood in the face of a heavy fire, and the Brigade
was badly cut up. Two hundred and nineteen men were brought in and
placed in the wards of the Division Hospital, many of them badly
wounded. The number killed has not been reported.
Our Army Corps is in fine spirits at our
prospect of a sure and speedy reduction of this rebel stronghold, and
the opening of the Mississippi.
The health of the regiment is good, and during
the present month there has been but little complaint of ill health.
Captain McCarty is commanding Company E, and is deservedly regarded with
favor, for he is a good officer. Lieutenant Stewart is now in command of
Company K, and should receive a Captaincy, as he fully merits it.
It is now a year and a half since I left home,
and I hope, after we take Vicksburg, to visit home, and tell you of a
thousand things I cannot get time to write.
JAMES S. REEVES,
Surgeon Seventy-Eighth Regiment, O. V. I.
SIEGE OF VICKSBURG.
the 22d of May the whole rebel army commanded by Pemberton, was enclosed
in a wall of steel. The Union army occupied a crescent line nine miles in
extent, General Sherman on the right, General McPherson the center,
General McClernand the left. On the 22d the whole line charged the enemy's
works. The writer stood upon an eminence with Captain Roberts, one of the
officers of the Signal Corps, where we could distinctly see nearly all our
line move forward to the charge. The fighting was terrible and deadly, but
the works were so formidable that our men could not scale them after they
had reached the base; consequently the charge proved unsuccessful along
the whole line. A skirmish line was immediately established within a few
rods of the enemy's works, and rifle-pits constructed which kept the enemy
down inside their works. Here our troops remained for a period of
forty-four days, each day pouring a storm of lead and iron into the
enemy's works and the city.
Many interesting incidents here occurred between
the soldiers of both armies, which all this time were near enough to
converse with each other. Many little dialogues took place, which would
swell our chapter too large to narrate.
At times they would agree to be civil to each other for a specified time,
and throwing aside their deadly weapons, would meet each other between the
lines for social chat, and frequently make a cup of coffee, exchange
canteens, buttons and rings.
The country in the immediate rear of Vicksburg is
one interminable series of swells, sandy hills or mounds, dotted with
lovely groves and elegant plantations, mostly in fine cultivation. These
mounds, almost straight up and down, and of a compact sandy soil, are
furrowed and covered with corn.
The hollows are deep and wide, with excellent
causeways, bubbling springs and fragrant groves, and now are filled up
with Yankees. No troops of consequrnce are visible till we get into the
hollows, where, concealed from the enemy's view, are the tents, equipage,
etc., of a powerful army.
The Second Brigade's camp was in one of these
deep ravines, near the Jackson road, which led to the White House and Fort
Hill, a half a mile distant. From the White House to the enemy's works
called Fort Hill, General Leggett had dug a ditch ten feet wide, and deep
enough to shelter a horseman. This sap was run into the walls of Fort
Hill, which was mined for the purpose of blowing up the Fort. This whole
operation was under the superintendence of General Leggett. In his first
effort, he used twenty-five hundred pounds of powder, which made a large
entrance in the fort.
The Forty-Fifth Illinois regiment entered the gap, where quite a fight
took place between them and the rebels. The fight was at close quarters,
grasping each other's bayonets, and wresting the guns from each other's
hands, pulling each other by the hair, etc., till both sides began to toss
over shells and hand-grenades; this caused both sides to fall back from
the gap. Both the Colonel and Major of the Forty-Fifth Illinois were
killed; also about one hundred men were killed or wounded.
July 1st. - General Leggett completed another
mine or sap into the fort, and placed one ton of powder under the wall.
When the match was applied the explosion was terrible, blowing out about
about fifty feet in length, and burying rebels by the score, and throwing
many high in the air. Eight of these were blown upon our side of the fort,
three of whom were colored, and all were killed but two. One of the
negroes was but little injured, and insists that he was blown three miles
in the air. General Logan had his wounds dressed and well cared for.
General Joe Johnston had at this time taken
possession of Jackson, Miss., and was marching toward Vicksburg to make an
attack upon our rear, in order to relieve Pemberton and his starved
garrison, which were now reduced to the most scanty rations, consisting of
mule meat and bean bread. General Sherman was ordered with part of the
army in which was the Second Brigade, to march against Johnston.
The evening of the 3d of July, every preparation
was made to give the rebel army and city a grand celebration on the 4th.
Consequently every piece of artillery was supplied with one hundred and
fifty rounds of ammunition for that purpose.
GENERAL PEMBERTON SURRENDERS HIS ARMY
AND THE CITY - THE CLOSING
SCENES OF THE VICKSBURG SIEGE.
1. - Affairs became desperate with the rebels, and one more effort was
made to cut through our lines by concentrating upon the left, but they
were repulsed with heavy loss, and driven back to their places of shelter.
On the evening of the 3d a flag of truce came into our lines, brought by
two Confederate officers. The messengers were blindfolded, and remained
waiting the return of General Smith, who bore dispatches from Pemberton to
General Grant. Their eyes were unbandaged, and they talked freely with the
Union officers. One said that iron enough had been thrown into Vicksburg
to stock a foundry, and build monuments for all the citizens and soldiers
that had fallen. When General Smith returned, the officers were again
blindfolded and conducted to a safe point, from which they could enter
their own lines.
The character of the dispatches was as follows:
"That the unnecessary effusion of blood might be prevented by the
cessation of hostilities, during which commissioners might be appointed to
agree on terms for the surrender of the city; also intimating that he
could hold out for an indefinite period."
General Grant replied briefly, saying that
General Pemberton had it in his power to stop the effusion of blood, and
the appointment of commissioners was unnecessary, as the only stipulation
he could accept was an unconditional surrender; that the rebel garrison
should be treated with the courtesy due prisoners of war.
The messenger had not long been gone till he returned with a dispatch from
Pemberton, asking a personal interview with Grant, which was promptly
granted. At 3 P. M. the interview took place, about midway between the
contending forces. General Grant came slowly and deliberately to the place
of rendezvous, smoking his cigar, and apparently the only unexcited person
in the vast assemblage of Federal soldiers, who dared for the first time
to appear outside of their rifle-pits. Pemberton first remarked that he
had been present when different fortresses surrendered to the Federal arms
in Mexico; in these the enemy were granted terms and conditions, and he
thought his army as well entitled to favor as a foreign foe.
General Grant proposed a private conversation,
and both stepped aside. What passed between them can be known by its
results. After a little more than one hour the terms were arranged, and
the rebels surrendered. About thirty-two thousand rebels were paroled.
At 10 A. M., July 4, General Leggett had the
honor of entering the city with his command, and placing the flag upon the
Court House. Soon the city was full of soldiers from both armies,
associating and chatting freely and with much good nature with each other.
No unfriendly or malignant feeling was manifested on the part of any.
The business portion of the city was plundered by the rebel soldiers,
which, to the shame of rebel officers, was blamed upon the Federal army,
and made capital of to incite the people of the South to hatred of the
The total loss of the Federal army in the series
of battles is as follows:
Port Gibson, 130 killed, 118 wounded; Fourteen
Mile Creek, 4 killed, 24 wounded; Raymond, 69 killed, 341 wounded;
Jackson, 40 killed, 290 wounded; Champion Hills, 421 killed, 1842 wounded,
189 missing; Black River, 29 killed, 242 wounded, 2 missing; Vicksburg,
545 killed, 3688 wounded, 303 missing.
The Seventy-Eighth Ohio had only one killed at
Vicksburg, Lyons, of Company A, who was a young man of excellent
character, and an efficient and faithful soldier.
Rev. Thomas M. Stevenson,
Chaplain of the Regiment; History Of The 78th Regiment O. V. V. I.,
From Its "Muster-In" To Its "Muster-Out;" Comprising
Its Organization, Marches, Campaigns, Battles And Skirmishes;
Zanesville, Ohio, 1865