• The Battle of Champion Hill by Francis Vinton Greene
    From Campaigns of the Civil War: The Mississippi, published by Scribner & Sons, 1882

    Francis Vinton Greene was born at Providence, Rhode Island June 27, 1850. He was the son of the "grandfatherly" Major General George Sears Greene, popularly known as the defender of Culp's Hill during the Battle of Gettysburg. Francis V. Greene graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1870. During his career he served in a variety of posts: assistant astronomer and surveyor on the International Commission for survey of the northern boundary of the United States, 1872-76; military attaché to U.S. Legation in St. Petersburg, 1877-79; in the field with the Russian Army in Turkey, 1877-78; assistant engineer in charge of public works in Washington, D. C., 1879-85; and professor of practical military engineer, United States Military Academy, 1885-86. In 1886 he resigned his commission and returned to private life.

    In 1898 he was appointed colonel of the 7th New York Infantry regiment to fight in the Spanish-American War. In August of the same year, he was rapidly promoted to brigadier general and major general, U. S. Volunteers, where he commanded 2nd Division, 7th Army Corps. He resigned his commission in February of 1899. He later served as: Chairman of the Commission on Canals, New York, 1899; Delegate to the Republican National Convention, Philadelphia, 1900; President of the Republican Committee, NY, 1900; New York City Police Commissioner, 1903-04; and President, Niagara-Lockport and Ontario Power Company.

    Greene is the author of numerous books of historical value: The Russian Army and its Campaigns in Turkey (2 volumes), 1879; Army Life in Russia, 1881; Campaigns of the Civil War : The Mississippi, 1881; The Life of Nathaniel Greene, Major General in the Army of the Revolution, 1893; The Revolutionary War and the Military Policy of the U.S., 1911, The Present Military Situation in the U. S., 1915; and Our First Year in the Great War, 1918.

    Greene and his wife, Belle Eugenie Chevaelie Greene made their home in New York City where he died on May 13, 1921. Francis Vinton and Belle Eugenie are buried in Arlington National Cemetery.


  • The Battle of Champion Hill by William C. Everhart
    Vicksburg National Military Park, Mississippi
    National Park Service Historical Handbook Series No. 21, Washington, D.C., 1954.

Sketch by Lt. Henry Otis Dwight, 20th Ohio

Sketch by Col. Slack, 47th Indiana

Champion Hill Maps

Map drawn by Union Engineers.
[The map is remarkably accurate and can be overlain on modern maps]

Map drawn at the request of General Hovey to show the location of his forces near the Champion House.
[This map is distorted, but can be used generally to see the location of forces near the Champion House]

Map drawn by C.S.A. Major Samuel Lockett, Chief Engineer of Vicksburg Defenses.
[This map contains glaring inaccuracies, including the number of roads leading from Raymond to Edwards]

A brief history from "A Guide to the Campaign & Siege of Vicksburg"

Champion Hill, the decision battle of the Vicksburg Campaign, began about 7:00 a.m. Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton, the Confederate commander, deployed his three divisions in a three mile-long battle line that ran from southwest to northeast along a ridge overlooking Jackson Creek. His position was suited for defense and was especially formidable against attacks along the Middle and Raymond roads. He was, however, unaware that one of the three Union columns was pushing down the Jackson Road toward his unprotected left flank on Champion Hill. If unchecked, this Union force could capture Edwards and cut the Confederates off from their base of operation - Vicksburg. Shortly aft 9:00 a.m. a courier brought warning of the Federal advance along the Jackson Road. Confederate troops were shifted to the left to cover Champion Hill and protect the vital crossroads. Federal soldiers arrived near the Champion house, swung from column into double line of battle and unlimbered their artillery. The battle roared into action.

Major General Grant established his headquarters at the Champion house. He ordered his 10,000 men on the Jackson Road to move forward in magnificent style with flags flying. The long blue lines extended westward beyond the Confederate flank. To meet this threat, Confederate troops shifted farther to the west creating a gap between the forces defending the crossroads and those defending the Raymond Road.

By 11:30 a.m. the Federals closed in on the Confederate main line of resistance. With a cheer they stormed the position. The fighting was intense as the battle raged on Champion Hill. The lines swayed back and forth as charge and countercharge were made. Shortly after 1:00 p.m. the strength of numbers prevailed. The blue tide swept over the crest of Champion Hill.

The Confederates fell back in disorder to the Jackson Road followed closely by the hard-driving Federals. The powerful Union drive captured the crossroads and severed the Jackson Road escape route. Confronted by disaster, Pemberton ordered his two remaining divisions to counterattack. Leaving one brigade to guard the Raymond Road, the Confederates moved from their right along the Ratliff Road toward the crossroads. Brigadier General John S. Bowen's 4,500 men attacked the Federals near the crossroads. Using bayonets they drove the Federals back and gained control of Champion Hill. Outnumbered, the Confederate attack faltered short of the Champion house.

Grant ordered up fresh troops to drive back the Confederates and moved the Federals forward along the Middle and Raymond roads. Confederate resistance was shattered and Pemberton ordered his army from the field.

Federal combat strength: 32,000. Casualties: 2,441.
Confederate combat strength: 22,000. Casualties: 3,840.

Used with permission, "A Guide to the Campaign & Siege of Vicksburg", State of Mississippi, Department of Archives and History, 1994.

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